Dickkopf1 (DKK1) is a secretory protein that antagonizes oncogenic Wnt signaling by binding to the Wnt coreceptor low-density lipoprotein receptor–related protein 6 (LRP6). DKK1 may also regulate its own signaling to promote cancer cell proliferation, but the mechanism is not understood. Here, we identified cytoskeleton-associated protein 4 (CKAP4) as a DKK1 receptor and evaluated CKAP4-mediated DKK1 signaling in cancer cell proliferation. We determined that DKK1 binds CKAP4 and LRP6 with similar affinity but interacts with these 2 receptors with different cysteine-rich domains. DKK1 induced internalization of CKAP4 in a clathrin-dependent manner, further supporting CKAP4 as a receptor for DKK1. DKK1/CKAP4 signaling activated AKT by forming a complex between the proline-rich domain of CKAP4 and the Src homology 3 domain of PI3K, resulting in proliferation of normal cells and cancer cells. Expression of DKK1 and CKAP4 was frequent in tumor lesions of human pancreatic and lung cancers, and simultaneous expression of both proteins in patient tumors was negatively correlated with prognosis and relapse-free survival. An anti-CKAP4 antibody blocked the binding of DKK1 to CKAP4, suppressed AKT activity in a human cancer cell line, and attenuated xenograft tumor formation in immunodeficient mice. Together, our results suggest that CKAP4 is a potential therapeutic target for cancers that express both DKK1 and CKAP4.
Hirokazu Kimura, Katsumi Fumoto, Kensaku Shojima, Satoshi Nojima, Yoshihito Osugi, Hideo Tomihara, Hidetoshi Eguchi, Yasushi Shintani, Hiroko Endo, Masahiro Inoue, Yuichiro Doki, Meinoshin Okumura, Eiichi Morii, Akira Kikuchi
Nerves enable cancer progression, as cancers have been shown to extend along nerves through the process of perineural invasion, which carries a poor prognosis. Furthermore, the innervation of some cancers promotes growth and metastases. It remains unclear, however, how nerves mechanistically contribute to cancer progression. Here, we demonstrated that Schwann cells promote cancer invasion through direct cancer cell contact. Histological evaluation of murine and human cancer specimens with perineural invasion uncovered a subpopulation of Schwann cells that associates with cancer cells. Coculture of cancer cells with dorsal root ganglion extracts revealed that Schwann cells direct cancer cells to migrate toward nerves and promote invasion in a contact-dependent manner. Upon contact, Schwann cells induced the formation of cancer cell protrusions in their direction and intercalated between the cancer cells, leading to cancer cell dispersion. The formation of these processes was dependent on Schwann cell expression of neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1) and ultimately promoted perineural invasion. Moreover, NCAM1-deficient mice showed decreased neural invasion and less paralysis. Such Schwann cell behavior reflects normal Schwann cell programs that are typically activated in nerve repair but are instead exploited by cancer cells to promote perineural invasion and cancer progression.
Sylvie Deborde, Tatiana Omelchenko, Anna Lyubchik, Yi Zhou, Shizhi He, William F. McNamara, Natalya Chernichenko, Sei-Young Lee, Fernando Barajas, Chun-Hao Chen, Richard L. Bakst, Efsevia Vakiani, Shuangba He, Alan Hall, Richard J. Wong
In extrapulmonary tuberculosis, the most common site of infection is within the lymphatic system, and there is growing recognition that lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) are involved in immune function. Here, we identified LECs, which line the lymphatic vessels, as a niche for
Thomas R. Lerner, Cristiane de Souza Carvalho-Wodarz, Urska Repnik, Matthew R.G. Russell, Sophie Borel, Collin R. Diedrich, Manfred Rohde, Helen Wainwright, Lucy M. Collinson, Robert J. Wilkinson, Gareth Griffiths, Maximiliano G. Gutierrez
It has been reported that endogenous retroviruses can contaminate human cell lines that have been passaged as xenotransplants in immunocompromised mice. We previously developed and described 2 human pancreatic β cell lines (EndoC-βH1 and EndoC-βH2) that were generated in this way. Here, we have shown that B10 xenotropic virus 1 (
Jeannette S. Kirkegaard, Philippe Ravassard, Signe Ingvarsen, Marc Diedisheim, Emilie Bricout-Neveu, Mads Grønborg, Thomas Frogne, Raphael Scharfmann, Ole D. Madsen, Claude Rescan, Olivier Albagli
Schwann cells produce myelin sheath around peripheral nerve axons. Myelination is critical for rapid propagation of action potentials, as illustrated by the large number of acquired and hereditary peripheral neuropathies, such as diabetic neuropathy or Charcot-Marie-Tooth diseases, that are commonly associated with a process of demyelination. However, the early molecular events that trigger the demyelination program in these diseases remain unknown. Here, we used virally delivered fluorescent probes and in vivo time-lapse imaging in a mouse model of demyelination to investigate the underlying mechanisms of the demyelination process. We demonstrated that mitochondrial calcium released by voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) after sciatic nerve injury triggers Schwann cell demyelination via ERK1/2, p38, JNK, and c-JUN activation. In diabetic mice, VDAC1 activity was altered, resulting in a mitochondrial calcium leak in Schwann cell cytoplasm, thereby priming the cell for demyelination. Moreover, reduction of mitochondrial calcium release, either by shRNA-mediated VDAC1 silencing or pharmacological inhibition, prevented demyelination, leading to nerve conduction and neuromuscular performance recovery in rodent models of diabetic neuropathy and Charcot-Marie-Tooth diseases. Therefore, this study identifies mitochondria as the early key factor in the molecular mechanism of peripheral demyelination and opens a potential opportunity for the treatment of demyelinating peripheral neuropathies.
Sergio Gonzalez, Jade Berthelot, Jennifer Jiner, Claire Perrin-Tricaud, Ruani Fernando, Roman Chrast, Guy Lenaers, Nicolas Tricaud
Strategies aimed at mimicking or enhancing the action of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) therapeutically improve glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS); however, it is not clear whether GLP-1 directly drives insulin secretion in pancreatic islets. Here, we examined the mechanisms by which GLP-1 stimulates insulin secretion in mouse and human islets. We found that GLP-1 enhances GSIS at a half-maximal effective concentration of 0.4 pM. Moreover, we determined that GLP-1 activates PLC, which increases submembrane diacylglycerol and thereby activates PKC, resulting in membrane depolarization and increased action potential firing and subsequent stimulation of insulin secretion. The depolarizing effect of GLP-1 on electrical activity was mimicked by the PKC activator PMA, occurred without activation of PKA, and persisted in the presence of PKA inhibitors, the KATP channel blocker tolbutamide, and the L-type Ca2+ channel blocker isradipine; however, depolarization was abolished by lowering extracellular Na+. The PKC-dependent effect of GLP-1 on membrane potential and electrical activity was mediated by activation of Na+-permeable TRPM4 and TRPM5 channels by mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ from thapsigargin-sensitive Ca2+ stores. Concordantly, GLP-1 effects were negligible in
Makoto Shigeto, Reshma Ramracheya, Andrei I. Tarasov, Chae Young Cha, Margarita V. Chibalina, Benoit Hastoy, Koenraad Philippaert, Thomas Reinbothe, Nils Rorsman, Albert Salehi, William R. Sones, Elisa Vergari, Cathryn Weston, Julia Gorelik, Masashi Katsura, Viacheslav O. Nikolaev, Rudi Vennekens, Manuela Zaccolo, Antony Galione, Paul R.V. Johnson, Kohei Kaku, Graham Ladds, Patrik Rorsman
Posttranslational modifications to the intracellular domain of the EGFR are known to regulate EGFR functions; however, modifications to the extracellular domain and their effects remain relatively unexplored. Here, we determined that methylation at R198 and R200 of the EGFR extracellular domain by protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) enhances binding to EGF and subsequent receptor dimerization and signaling activation. In a mouse orthotopic colorectal cancer xenograft model, expression of a methylation-defective EGFR reduced tumor growth. Moreover, increased EGFR methylation sustained signaling activation and cell proliferation in the presence of the therapeutic EGFR monoclonal antibody cetuximab. In colorectal cancer patients, EGFR methylation level also correlated with a higher recurrence rate after cetuximab treatment and reduced overall survival. Together, these data indicate that R198/R200 methylation of the EGFR plays an important role in regulating EGFR functionality and resistance to cetuximab treatment.
Hsin-Wei Liao, Jung-Mao Hsu, Weiya Xia, Hung-Ling Wang, Ying-Nai Wang, Wei-Chao Chang, Stefan T. Arold, Chao-Kai Chou, Pei-Hsiang Tsou, Hirohito Yamaguchi, Yueh-Fu Fang, Hong-Jen Lee, Heng-Huan Lee, Shyh-Kuan Tai, Mhu-Hwa Yang, Maria P. Morelli, Malabika Sen, John E. Ladbury, Chung-Hsuan Chen, Jennifer R. Grandis, Scott Kopetz, Mien-Chie Hung
Cilia are critical mediators of paracrine signaling; however, it is unknown whether proteins that contribute to ciliopathies converge on multiple paracrine pathways through a common mechanism. Here, we show that loss of cilopathy-associated proteins Bardet-Biedl syndrome 4 (BBS4) or oral-facial-digital syndrome 1 (OFD1) results in the accumulation of signaling mediators normally targeted for proteasomal degradation. In WT cells, several BBS proteins and OFD1 interacted with proteasomal subunits, and loss of either BBS4 or OFD1 led to depletion of multiple subunits from the centrosomal proteasome. Furthermore, overexpression of proteasomal regulatory components or treatment with proteasomal activators sulforaphane (SFN) and mevalonolactone (MVA) ameliorated signaling defects in cells lacking BBS1, BBS4, and OFD1, in morphant zebrafish embryos, and in induced neurons from
Yangfan P. Liu, I-Chun Tsai, Manuela Morleo, Edwin C. Oh, Carmen C. Leitch, Filomena Massa, Byung-Hoon Lee, David S. Parker, Daniel Finley, Norann A. Zaghloul, Brunella Franco, Nicholas Katsanis
Cleft lip, which results from impaired facial process growth and fusion, is one of the most common craniofacial birth defects. Many genes are known to be involved in the etiology of this disorder; however, our understanding of cleft lip pathogenesis remains incomplete. In the present study, we uncovered a role for sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling during lip fusion. Mice carrying compound mutations in hedgehog acyltransferase (
Hiroshi Kurosaka, Angelo Iulianella, Trevor Williams, Paul A. Trainor
Hereditary deafness affects approximately 1 in 2,000 children. Mutations in the gene encoding the cochlear gap junction protein connexin 26 (CX26) cause prelingual, nonsyndromic deafness and are responsible for as many as 50% of hereditary deafness cases in certain populations. Connexin-associated deafness is thought to be the result of defective development of auditory sensory epithelium due to connexion dysfunction. Surprisingly, CX26 deficiency is not compensated for by the closely related connexin CX30, which is abundantly expressed in the same cochlear cells. Here, using two mouse models of CX26-associated deafness, we demonstrate that disruption of the CX26-dependent gap junction plaque (GJP) is the earliest observable change during embryonic development of mice with connexin-associated deafness. Loss of CX26 resulted in a drastic reduction in the GJP area and protein level and was associated with excessive endocytosis with increased expression of caveolin 1 and caveolin 2. Furthermore, expression of deafness-associated
Kazusaku Kamiya, Sabrina W. Yum, Nagomi Kurebayashi, Miho Muraki, Kana Ogawa, Keiko Karasawa, Asuka Miwa, Xueshui Guo, Satoru Gotoh, Yoshinobu Sugitani, Hitomi Yamanaka, Shioko Ito-Kawashima, Takashi Iizuka, Takashi Sakurai, Tetsuo Noda, Osamu Minowa, Katsuhisa Ikeda
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